The next (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) was approved by the Board of Trustees of the American Psychiatric Association on December 1, 2012. The new DSM-5 will be published in May 2013 and will be the first significant update to the manual in nearly two decades. A set of updates, revisions and changes to the reference manual used to diagnose mental disorders will provide healthcare providers with new guidelines regarding their practice.
The first draft diagnostic criteria for DSM-5 has now been released and includes the following revisions:
1. The recommendation of new categories for learning disorders and a single diagnostic category, “autism spectrum disorders” that will incorporate the current diagnoses of autistic disorders, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder, and childhood disintegrative disorder.
2. Eliminating the current categories substance abuse and dependence, replacing them with the new category “addiction and related disorders”, which will include substance use disorders, with each drug identified in its own category.
3. Creating a new category of “behavioral addictions”, in which gambling will be the sole disorder. Internet addiction was also considered for this category, but there was insufficient data to incorporate it, so it will be included in the manual’s appendix instead.
4. New suicide scales for adults and adolescents to help clinicians identify those individuals most at risk, with a purpose of enhancing interventions across a broad range of mental disorders; those scales include research-based criteria such as impulsive behavior and heavy drinking in teenagers.
5. A proposed new diagnostic category, temper dysregulation with dysphoria (TDD), within the Mood Disorders section of the manual. This may help clinicians better differentiate children with these symptoms from those with bipolar disorder or oppositional defiant disorder.
6. Consideration of a new “risk syndromes” category, with information to help clinicians identify earlier stages of some serious mental disorders, such as psychosis and dementia.
7. New recognition of binge eating disorder and improved criteria for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, as well as recommended changes in the definitions of some eating disorders.
DMS-5 will also include some proposed changes to DSM-IV diagnoses, for conditions such as asperger syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, depression, dissociative identity disorder, gender identity disorder, hypersexual disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, personality disorders, pica, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, and somatoform disorder.
Proposed DSM-5 new diagnoses include the following:
- compulsive hoarding;
- depressive personality disorder;
- olfactory reference syndrome;
- skin picking disorder;
- complex post-traumatic stress disorder;
- binge eating;
- negativistic (passive-aggressive) personality disorder;
- sluggish cognitive tempo;
- relational disorder.
Outside sources have also proposed conditions for inclusion in the DMS-5. These include:
- Apathy Syndrome;
- Body Integrity Identity Disorder
- Complicated Grief Disorder
- Developmental Trauma Disorder
- Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified
- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
- Internet Addiction Disorder
- Male-to-Eunuch Gender Identity Disorder
- Parental Alienation Syndrome
- Seasonal Affective Disorder
- Sensory Processing Disorder
Until the new DMS-5 final version is released in May 2013, those who are interested in the manual can follow APA’s website, where information on its development and draft versions are posted on a regular basis. APA is also listing sections of DSM-5 for review and discussion, so check it out if you want to learn more on the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.